We investigated HIV prevalence and associated factors among men ≥ 15 years in South Africa using data from a 2017 nationwide cross-sectional survey. HIV prevalence was 10.5% among 6 646 participants. Prevalence increased from 4.1% in the younger men (15–24 years), 12.5% in young men (25–34 years) to 12.7% in older men (≥ 35 years). Odds of being infected with HIV were lower among younger men who had secondary level education and those who reported poor/fair self-rated health. Young and older men of other race groups had lower odds of HIV infection. Odds of infection were lower among young men who had moderate/high exposure to HIV communication programmes. Men not aware of their HIV status had higher odds of HIV infection, including older men who never married. Improved access to education, behavioral change programmes, and awareness of HIV status are necessary to reduce the risk of HIV infection among Black African men.