Are there differences in disease progression and mortality among male and female HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy? A meta-analysis of observational cohorts

Abioye, A.I., Soipe, A.I., Salako, A.A., Odesanya, M.O., Okuneye, T.A., Abioye, A.I., Ismail, K.A. & Omotayo, M.O.

Studies examining the sex differences in morbidity and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of sex differences in disease progression and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients. Medical literature databases from inception to August 2014 were searched for published observational studies assessing sex differences in immunologic and virologic response, disease progression and mortality among HIV-infected patients. Random effects meta-analyses of 115 eligible studies were conducted to obtain pooled estimates of outcomes and heterogeneity was explored in sub-group analyses. Pooled estimates showed an increased risk of progression to AIDS (relative risk [RR]=1.11,95% CI=1.02–1.21) and all-cause mortality (RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.17–1.29) among males compared to females. All-cause mortality differed by sex only in low and middle income countries. The risk of AIDS-related mortality (RR=1.03, 95% CI=0.82–1.30), immunologic failure (RR=1.19,95% CI: 0.97–1.47), virologic suppression (RR=0.98, 95% CI=0.84–1.14), virologic failure (RR=1.26, 95% CI=0.99–1.61) and the change in CD4 cell count (Weighted mean difference [WMD] = −5.15, 95% CI= −13.57 to 3.28) did not differ by sex. These findings were modified by disease severity, adherence and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We conclude that HIV-related disease progression and survival outcomes are poorer in males.

Size: pdf